Jump to content
  • The Computer Audiophile
    The Computer Audiophile

    Apple Music Lossless Mess Part 2: AirPlay

     

     

    Earlier this month I dug into Apple Music's Lossless and Hi-Res offerings, running several bit perfect rests on the audio output of my Macs and iOS devices. The results were less than stellar (link). This week I dug into Apple Music lossless over AirPlay. One would think that the results would be similar if the only thing changing is the method of transporting the music. However, it's still the Wild West and Apple has made the waters even more muddy with AirPlay. 

     

    Before I get to the details, I want to thank the Bluesound team. This team was very helpful while I was testing and researching AirPlay and Apple Music Lossless. These guys really know what they are doing and are on the leading edge of supporting and developing solutions that may seem simple to the end user, but are quite complex behind the scenes. 

     

    NOTE: Be sure to read the UPDATED parts below, suggested by @Marco Klobas


    Let's Dig In

     

    Just like my previous article, I want to start with some basics. 

     

    What is bit perfect and why should I care? In the simplest terms, bit perfect means that the audio hasn't been changed. The music sent, in this case from Apple Music, into the playback device hasn't been altered. The source is what has been delivered to Apple by the record labels. Apple is just the delivery company.
     
    If you care about high quality, getting the lossless streaming you're paying for from Apple Music, Qobuz, Tidal, Amazon Music, etc... then you should care about bit perfect because without it you have no idea what's happening to your audio. If this isn't a concern for you, no worries. 

     

     

    Testing Methodology 

     

    Testing AirPlay was much more difficult than straight USB connected audio devices. There are AirPlay 1 devices, AirPlay 2 devices, Shairport devices, and a host of applications that don't follow any specific set of standards when sending audio via AirPlay. 

     

    My bit perfect testing consists of a Berkeley Audio Design Alpha DAC Reference Series 3 that identifies and decodes HDCD on all sample rates from 44.1 up through 192 kHz. When an unaltered HDCD music track is played, the HDCD indicator on the DAC is illuminated. The HDCD flag is on the 16th bit for lossless CD files and the 24th bit for high resolution files. Any alteration, DSP, volume leveling, etc... changes this least significant bit and won't enable the HDCD indicator to illuminate on my DAC. Apple Music's lossless audio that I tested was 16 bit / 44.1 kHz and the Hi-Res audio was both 24 bit / 176.4 kHz and 24 bit / 192 kHz. That's the hardware piece. 

     


    Feeding the DAC I used four devices.

     

    • A Berkeley Audio Design Alpha USB. This converts USB audio to AES or S/PDIF on BNC. This device doesn't use AirPlay, but it helps set a baseline for testing.
    • A Bluesound Node 2i that supports AirPlay 2 and uses the newest version of Apple's AirPlay 2 chip. 
    • An Apple AirPort Express 802.11n (2nd Generation) serial number C86HV7S1DV2R. This device supports AirPlay 2 and features optical S/PDIF output over Toslink. 
    • An Apple AirPort Express 802.11n (1st Generation) serial number 6F94552G2U6. This device supports AirPlay 1 and features optical S/PDIF output over Toslink.
    • A Sonore signatureRendu SE Optical. This device supports ShairPort, an open source version of Apple's AirPlay 1.

     


    Sending audio to the above devices I used the following.

     

    • An Apple iPhone 12 Pro running iOS 14.6 and the Apple Music app.
    • An Apple Mac Mini (M1) running macOS 11.4, and Apple Pro Display XDR.
    • An iPad Pro (12.9-inch) (2nd Generation) running iOS 14.6.

     


    With respect to source files, here's what I do. 
     
    I have a list of roughly ten known HDCD albums (although I could use more if needed). Many of these albums were only released as HDCD encoded CDs/files. There is no alternate lossless version. For example, Reference Recordings only releases CDs that are HDCD encoded. Pearl Jam's Live On Two Legs was only released as an HDCD master for its lossless CD version. 
     
    I set a baseline by playing my own local copy of the albums and make sure the HDCD indicator illuminates. I played some Reference Recordings albums through Apple's Music desktop application on macOS and made sure the app could handle bit perfect playback. All was good there. On iOS, I used other apps such as Qobuz, to play the identical music through the identical hardware. All was good through the Qobuz app. Again, there are no alternative versions of these lossless albums. It's the same music on all the services that offer lossless streaming.
     
    Absolutely there are possible holes in my methodology, but I believe I've minimized them as much as possible. If anyone can identify a hole, please let me know and I will retest. 
     

     

    Results Without Context

     

    Here is a list of the results, straight up without any context. 

     

    On iOS

    1. Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 1 to AirPort Express 1st Gen - bit perfect at 44.1.
    2. Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 1 to Sonore Rendu (ShairPort) - bit perfect at 44.1.
    3. Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to Bluesound Node 2i - NOT bit perfect at 44.1.
    4. Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to AirPort Express 2nd Gen - NOT bit perfect 44.1.

     

    iOS Notable

    1. Qobuz, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to Bluesound Node 2i - bit perfect at 44.1.
    2. Qobuz, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to AirPort Express 2nd Gen - bit perfect at 44.1.
    3. Tidal, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to Bluesound Node 2i - NOT bit perfect at 44.1.
    4. Tidal, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to AirPort Express 2nd Gen - NOT bit perfect 44.1.
    5. Tidal, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 1 to AirPort Express 1st Gen - bit perfect at 44.1.
    6. Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, USB output with CCK - not bit perfect at 44.1.
    7. Qobuz, lossless streaming content, USB output with CCK - bit perfect at 44.1 and 192.

     


    On macOS

    1. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 1 to AirPort Express 1st Gen - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.
    2. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 1 to Sonore Rendu (ShairPort) - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.
    3. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, Airplay 2 to Bluesound Node 2i - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.
    4. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless streaming content, AirPlay 2 to AirPort Express 2nd Gen - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.

     

    macOS Notable

    1. Apple's Music App, lossless local content, AirPlay 1 to AirPort Express 1st Gen - bit perfect at 44.1.
    2. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless local content, AirPlay 2 to Bluesound Node 2i - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.
    3. UPDATED: Apple's Music App, lossless local content, AirPlay 2 to AirPort Express 2nd Gen - bit perfect at 44.1 only if the system-wide AirPlay device is set. If AirPlay device only selected in the Music app, the output is NOT bit perfect.
    4. Apple's Music App, lossless local content, USB output - bit perfect at 44.1.

     

     

     

    Setting the system-wide audio device to an AirPlay device is done by selecting the following item in the system menu at the top of the screen.

     

    2.jpg 1.jpg

     

     

     

     

     

    Once selected, it will appear in the Music app this way.

     

    Display in Music App.jpg

     

     


    Results With Some Thoughts And Videos

     

    Please see the UPDATED notes above!

     

    Sending Apple Music lossless content from an iOS device to an AirPlay version 1 device was surprisingly bit perfect, when all other methods were not bit perfect. My original guess was that this is because the AirPlay version 1 Express only accepted Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC), so the sending app had no choice. However, this doesn't square with the fact that the Music app on macOS doesn't send bit perfect lossless audio to the same 1st gen Express. I retested this multiple times to make sure the results were identical on every test. The bottom line is that AirPlay 2 isn't currently receiving bit perfect lossless audio unless the system-wide output is set to an AirPlay 2 device, otherwise it's likely converting it to AAC at 256 kbps. Strangely, the Music app on macOS says it's streaming lossless audio only when sending via AirPlay 2 even if it is lossy because of the output selection only being done in the Music app, but the audio isn't bit perfect this way. The same app when sending via AirPlay 1, doesn't even pretend to send lossless, so it doesn't even display the lossless logo will display the lossless logo only if the system-wide audio device is set to the AirPlay 1 device.

     

    Currently, the only way to stream lossless audio from a streaming service, bit perfectly, over AirPlay is to use an AirPlay version 1 device and use Apple Music, Tidal HiFi, or Qobuz, or an AirPlay 2 device and Qobuz. It seems like Qobuz doesn't care what the device supports, it just send the lossless audio without changing it. Apple Music sees AirPlay 2 and dumbs the music down to lossy AAC.

     

     

    VIDEO One

     

    Here is a video of my testing Apple Music streaming lossless 16 bit / 44.1 kHz audio from an iPad Pro to an AirPort Express (1st gen) via AirPlay 1. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. Shortly after I press play, the sample rate on the DAC changes to 44.1, the Lock light on the DAC turns green to indicated a solid signal is received, and the HDCD indicator illuminates blue to indicate the DAC recognizes the HDCD flag on the 16th bit of the audio signal. 
    2. At 0:25 into the video you can see the app shows its sending Lossless 16-bit/44.1 kHz ALAC content.
    3. At 0:35 into the video you can see what happens when I adjust the volume. As soon as the volume is not at 100%, bit perfection is lost and the HDCD indicator turns off. When I increase the volume back to 100%, the indicator illuminates blue once again. This is but one example of anything that changes the audio, destroys bit perfection and the HDCD indicator goes off. 
    4. At 0:47 into the video I change tracks. Shortly thereafter you can see the HDCD light go out, while no audio is playing for the split second, then come back on as soon as the track starts. 
    5. At 1:03 into the video you can see as soon as I press pause, the HDCD and Lock indicator lights go out.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO TWO

     

    Here is a video of my testing Apple Music streaming lossless 16 / 44.1 audio from MacBook Pro to a Bluesound Node 2i via AirPlay 2. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. The sample rate and Lock indicator are already good because the Node 2i had previously played this content. 
    2. When I press play, the HDCD indicator remains off, indicating something in the audio has changed, destroying the 16th bit.
    3. At 0:23 into the video you can see when I click the Apple Music lossless logo. The app indicates it's receiving lossless audio from Apple Music. The fact that it isn't sending this lossless audio to the AirPlay 2 device is not indicated anywhere for the consumer to see.
    4. Note: When sending this same audio to an AirPlay 1 device from the MacBook Pro, the lossless logo doesn't appear in the now playing window and the app says AAC if you click Get Info.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO THREE 


    Here is a video of my testing Apple's Music application streaming LOCALLY stored  / my own CD rip lossless 16 / 44.1 audio from MacBook Pro to a Bluesound Node 2i via AirPlay 2. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. The sample rate and Lock indicators are correct. 
    2. The HDCD indicator never illuminates, indicating the audio sent is not bit perfect. 
    3. I also adjust the volume up and down to make sure it's at 100%. 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO FOUR


    Here is a video of my testing Apple's Music application streaming LOCALLY stored  / my own CD rip lossless 16 / 44.1 audio from MacBook Pro to an AirPort Express 1st Gen via AirPlay 1. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. The sample rate and lock indicator correctly adjust upon playback.
    2. The HDCD indicator correctly illuminates upon playback, indicating bit perfect audio.
    3. At 0:50 into the video you can see the track is local 44.1 AIFF file. 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO FIVE

     

    Here is a video of my testing Apple Music streaming lossless 16 bit / 44.1 kHz audio from a MacBook Pro to an AirPort Express (1st gen) via AirPlay 1. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. Sample rate and Lock indicator adjust correctly.
    2. HDCD indicator doesn't illuminate upon playback.
    3. At 0:40 into the video you can see the Get Info screen showing AAC audio being sent. This appears to be the audio sent from Apple Music, not what is sent behind the scenes to the AirPlay device, even though AAc is in fact what's sent to the AirPlay 1 device as well. 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO SIX

     

    Here is a video of my testing Apple's Music application streaming LOCALLY stored  / my own CD rip lossless 16 / 44.1 audio from MacBook Pro to an Alpha USB via USB. This is just a baseline video showing Apple's Music app is fully capable of bit perfect output via USB.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    VIDEO SEVEN

     

    Here is a video of my testing Apple Music application streaming lossless audio 16 / 44.1 audio from MacBook Pro to an Alpha USB via USB. You can see several things in this video.

     

    1. The video shows all my settings correct in the app. 
    2. At 0:40 into the video I hit play and the HDCD indicator goes on for a short period, then continues to blink on/off periodically throughout the video. This indicates the audio fluctuates between bit perfect and not bit perfect. 
    3. At 0:50 into the video you can see the lossless logo clicked and Apple Music displaying Lossless 16-bit 44.1 kHz ALAC as the audio stream.  

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


    Wrap Up

    There you have the complete soup sandwich that is Apple Music lossless streaming over AirPlay versions 1 and 2. 

     

    I'd like to note that some people have said my bit perfect testing isn't really that big of a deal because Apple is streaming lossless audio and they don't care if it isn't bit perfect because it's better than the lossy stuff. After doing my research, I can tell you the "lossless" may be the exact same thing as the lossy, so people really should care about bit perfect playback. If we don't know where the digital signal processing is happening, we don't know that it's even lossless. 

     

    If you see anything in my tests that you think isn't right, please let me know. The last thing I want to do is cause even more confusion with misinformation. I believe everything here is 100% correct. 
     

     

     

     

     




    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments



    1 hour ago, Mc-ornell said:

    Apple ‘Connect’

     

    I believe it is present in the form of Audio Handoff for HomePod.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    I wonder two things: 
    - What about third party Airplay 1 capabilities? I have a receiver with Airplay 1. It is not updatable (apparently). Same for some powered speakers. All stuck in Airplay 1 world. Are they ALAC exclusively? If so, maybe preferable going strait to the Airplay 1 devices versus playing to my Airport Express 2 via its update to Airplay 2 and then to better DAC? I rarely do multi-room via Airplay and, when I do, AAC is fine.

    - The old AE2 has a very good AKM 4430 DAC in it (for the time and can handle AM Lossless fully). I wonder if that stays ALAC versus Toslink to an external DAC? To my ear, as usual, it depends on the music and system. My crap system shines strait from the 4430 in it. Incredible, really. (The speakers cost me $10 and the amp was free!) But my better system seems to prefer Toslink to newer AKM 4493 DAC. Note: the DAC in the AE1 is not a good DAC so, Toslink from that makes sense.

     

    I think Apple just needs to clarify what can do what. If Airplay 2 is limited too AAC all around, that would kind of suck but for me, not at all. But if it works ALAC point to point, that would be fine and enjoyable. Also, if they mess with the data, they need to say where and why. 

    However, hovering over all of this is the provenance of the recording. Really only newer post 1996 recordings should be in this discussion. Even then, only recordings that are known to be least messed with in editing, including after hand off to the streaming service. Most pop music for the past 20 years is so heavily edited and altered from the mic, you are lucky to hear 5 bit sections of any recording through a wall of noise. Louder sells more music, is the mantra.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    This may seem like a dumb question concerning the AppleTV; but Apple’s advice to get lossless from it, is that it must be connected via HDMI to a receiver.

     

    My AppleTV 4k is only going to my TV via HDMI. The TV goes to my DAC via Toslink.

     

    It must be because I’m not connected to a receiver that the Options for Audio quality do not show up in Settings -> Music App. So I can’t select lossless there.

     

    I guess that means that whatever we manage to stream to an ATV 4k via Airplay, it won’t be lossless from the ATV, unless the ATV 4K is connected to a receiver via HDMI, right?

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    1 hour ago, Geoffrey Armstrong said:

    AppleTV

    There is another problem with AppleTV: it resample everything to 24/48 by default …

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    That’s true. I also have the older generation AppleTV with Optical out; but with this I also can”t see the audio quality settings.

     

    At the moment, I’m assuming the only way to get lossless (at 24/48) is out of an ATV 4k, that’s connected to an appropraite receiver via HDMI.

     

    I don’t know how it determines if it’s connected to a receiver. I’ll try later with my Oppo disk player, to check if the ATV believes that’s a receiver.

     

    This is no problem with the Tidal app on AppleTV, which I do believe is lossless and doesn’t need to see an HDMI receiver to output lossless.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    7 hours ago, Geoffrey Armstrong said:

    That’s true. I also have the older generation AppleTV with Optical out; but with this I also can”t see the audio quality settings.

     

    At the moment, I’m assuming the only way to get lossless (at 24/48) is out of an ATV 4k, that’s connected to an appropraite receiver via HDMI.

     

    I don’t know how it determines if it’s connected to a receiver. I’ll try later with my Oppo disk player, to check if the ATV believes that’s a receiver.

     

    This is no problem with the Tidal app on AppleTV, which I do believe is lossless and doesn’t need to see an HDMI receiver to output lossless.

     

    I am running an ATV 4K into an HDMI splitter and getting 24/48 PCM, FWIW.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    22 minutes ago, new_media said:

     

    I am running an ATV 4K into an HDMI splitter and getting 24/48 PCM, FWIW.

    Thanks. Seems like some kind of handshake is performed with HDMI and if ATV doesn’t like what it sees on the other end of the connection, you don’t see the lossless options.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    There is one more way to play Apple Music from Apple TV 4 and 4K to a system.
    I have my ATV4 connected wirelessly (probably Airplay) to an Airport Express 2 which in turn, feeds directly to an amp via 3.5 to RCA. The AKM DAC in the AE2 is pretty good!
    This was Apples solution to the missing 3.5/Toslink from ATV 4 onward. Presumably, this can also work with any Airplay receiver but, I've only used it in this instance.
    I do not know if it is sending it ALAC or AAC. My guess is AAC as, it lists all the Airplay devices I own. However, some are not playable with others. IOW: Airplay 1.0 devices are listed. I wonder if those 1.0 receivers are ALAC since it is point to point and to v. 1.0? If so, this is an interesting option from ATV4 and 4K for those wondering how to do it with no Toslink or Aux. The AE2 DAC is an AK4430 192kHz 24-Bit. Should match up with Apple Music Lossless nice.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    On 6/28/2021 at 11:47 PM, Mc-ornell said:

    As John Darko says in his latest video, the only reliable way to get Apple Music lossless/hi-res lossless into your hi-fi at the moment is with an iOS device (iPad or iPhone), the CCK and a DAC. Everything else is a compromise of some sort. 

    Yeah. But, as Chris has figured out, even iOS to the CCK doesn’t deliver bit perfect.  So much for the Dragonly DAC that I just picked up…

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    1 hour ago, James lee said:

    I've done a lossless truncation of the unwanted bits from a polluted AM 16bit stream.

     

    And it nulls properly so a true fix to retain lossless. You need a vst host.

     

    Are you able to see what the values of bits 17-24 are?  Wondering if this is zero padding (doesn't seem like it if there's a sonic effect), dither...?

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

     

    I'm supposing they (17 to 23) are clear judging by the pre fixes null being one bit and also the shape of the original 16bit Christmas's tree look which never happens when you gain alter a 16bit stream in a higher bit environment.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    2 hours ago, Jud said:

     

    Are you able to see what the values of bits 17-24 are?  Wondering if this is zero padding (doesn't seem like it if there's a sonic effect), dither...?

    Ser above comment of mine

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Wow! There's a part 2?  Thanks, Chris!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    17 hours ago, jjdnyc said:

    Yeah. But, as Chris has figured out, even iOS to the CCK doesn’t deliver bit perfect.  So much for the Dragonly DAC that I just picked up…

    Give it a try anyway. I think you will like the Lossless.

    So, you can't get a whole wheat bun and Kobe beef on the incredible burger from your favorite burger place. It is still a damn good burger. :-)

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    I just tested @James lee's partial file capture and can verify it's bit perfect and illuminated the HDCD indicator on my DAC. 

     

    Crazy that the file streaming from Apple Music isn't but perfect, but applying the right special sauce to it afterward makes it perfect. 

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    1 hour ago, The Computer Audiophile said:

    I just tested @James lee's partial file capture and can verify it's bit perfect and illuminated the HDCD indicator on my DAC. 

     

    Crazy that the file streaming from Apple Music isn't but perfect, but applying the right special sauce to it afterward makes it perfect. 

     

    Very cool. I'm interested to see what he discovers about the LSB in a 24-bit stream.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    10 hours ago, The Computer Audiophile said:

    I just tested @James lee's partial file capture and can verify it's bit perfect and illuminated the HDCD indicator on my DAC. 

     

    Crazy that the file streaming from Apple Music isn't but perfect, but applying the right special sauce to it afterward makes it perfect. 

     

    If I'm understanding @James leecorrectly (please tell me if I'm not), Apple is just "zero padding"? So being able to get bit-perfection by eliminating the zeros in registers 17-24 of each "word" doesn't seem remarkable to me. What does seem remarkable is a sonic impact that essentially results from writing 1 as 1.00000000.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    40 minutes ago, Jud said:

     

    If I'm understanding @James leecorrectly (please tell me if I'm not), Apple is just "zero padding"? So being able to get bit-perfection by eliminating the zeros in registers 17-24 of each "word" doesn't seem remarkable to me. What does seem remarkable is a sonic impact that essentially results from writing 1 as 1.00000000.


    I can set my DAC to look at either the 16th or 24th bit for the HDCD flag. I don’t see it on either, unless the files are run through the plugin. 

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Just for my understanding, does @James lee s work mean although the digital USB output isn’t bit perfect the audio content is untainted/valid?

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    49 minutes ago, Jud said:

    Apple is just "zero padding"?

    It's not zero. I cant tell you exactly what is in bit 24 but it is something. Waves IDR can choose 22bit, 18bit as well as 16bit/24bit. All except 24bit fixes the stream.

    I've done blind test as randomised 5 round test. So far only two rounds. I picked Qobuz 60percent of the time each bunch.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    51 minutes ago, Jud said:

     

    If I'm understanding @James leecorrectly (please tell me if I'm not), Apple is just "zero padding"? So being able to get bit-perfection by eliminating the zeros in registers 17-24 of each "word" doesn't seem remarkable to me. What does seem remarkable is a sonic impact that essentially results from writing 1 as 1.00000000.

     

    In addition, I see the HDCD flag on the 16th when the track starts, but after less than one second, it's destroyed. 

     

    If all that's happening is padding, it's really strange to start after the track starts. Plus, the HDCD flag should still be intact on the 16th bit with padding. Nonetheless, I change my DAC to look at both 16 and 24th bits, and neither has the HDCD flag. 

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Listen for quieter parts in busier sections. You can sense the depth more of the quiter elements.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites




    Create an account or sign in to comment

    You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

    Create an account

    Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

    Register a new account

    Sign in

    Already have an account? Sign in here.

    Sign In Now



×
×
  • Create New...